Development of the Post-2015 Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction

 

Documents

Co-Chairs' zero draft
[EN]

Chart of the zero draft

Letter from the co-Chairs
[EN]

Transmitted herewith is the zero draft of the post-2015 framework for disaster risk reduction, brought to the attention of the second session of the Preparatory Committee of the Third United Nations World Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction to be held in Geneva from 17 to 18 November 2014.

The present zero draft has been prepared by the co-Chairs of the Preparatory Committee to serve as the basis for negotiations during the second session of the Preparatory Committee.

The zero draft builds on the pre-zero draft, which in turn drew on the views of Member States and major groups expressed during the first meeting of the Preparatory Committee, held in Geneva from 14 to 15 July 2014, as well as the outcome of the six regional platforms for disaster risk reduction and the reports of the multi-stakeholders consultations on the post-2015 framework for disaster risk reduction held since March 2012.

Importantly, the zero draft takes into consideration the views and comments (available at http://www.wcdrr.org/preparatory/viewsandcomments) expressed during the ten open-ended informal consultative meetings with Member States and five consultations with major groups, held in Geneva from 5 September to 13 October 2014, as mandated by the first meeting of the Preparatory Committee. In addition, a joint meeting with Member States and major groups was held on 19 September 2014.

Following the decision of General Assembly resolution 68/211 of 20 December 2013, which called for a concise, focused, forward-looking and action-oriented outcome document, the zero draft proposes a stand-alone document that builds substantively on and supersedes the Hyogo Framework for Action in order to offer a single reference document to policymakers and practitioners. It also attempts to strike a balance between, on the one hand, the need for precise and detailed guidance on a variety of critical issues of a cross-cutting nature that are relevant to all States and other stakeholders and, on the other hand, the need to produce a concise, focused and practical outcome document.

Transmitted herewith is the zero draft of the post-2015 framework for disaster risk reduction, brought to the attention of the second session of the Preparatory Committee of the Third United Nations World Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction to be held in Geneva from 17 to 18 November 2014.

The present zero draft has been prepared by the co-Chairs of the Preparatory Committee to serve as the basis for negotiations during the second session of the Preparatory Committee.

The zero draft builds on the pre-zero draft, which in turn drew on the views of Member States and major groups expressed during the first meeting of the Preparatory Committee, held in Geneva from 14 to 15 July 2014, as well as the outcome of the six regional platforms for disaster risk reduction and the reports of the multi-stakeholders consultations on the post-2015 framework for disaster risk reduction held since March 2012.

Importantly, the zero draft takes into consideration the views and comments (available at http://www.wcdrr.org/preparatory/viewsandcomments) expressed during the ten open-ended informal consultative meetings with Member States and five consultations with major groups, held in Geneva from 5 September to 13 October 2014, as mandated by the first meeting of the Preparatory Committee. In addition, a joint meeting with Member States and major groups was held on 19 September 2014.

Following the decision of General Assembly resolution 68/211 of 20 December 2013, which called for a concise, focused, forward-looking and action-oriented outcome document, the zero draft proposes a stand-alone document that builds substantively on and supersedes the Hyogo Framework for Action in order to offer a single reference document to policymakers and practitioners. It also attempts to strike a balance between, on the one hand, the need for precise and detailed guidance on a variety of critical issues of a cross-cutting nature that are relevant to all States and other stakeholders and, on the other hand, the need to produce a concise, focused and practical outcome document.

[Post-2015 framework for disaster risk reduction]

Provisional name

A. Preamble

  1. This post-2015 framework for disaster risk reduction was adopted at the Third United Nations World Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction, held from 14 to 18 March 2015 in Sendai, Miyagi, Japan. The World Conference represented a unique opportunity for countries to: i) adopt a concise, focused, forward-looking and action-oriented post-2015 framework for disaster risk reduction and ii) identify modalities of cooperation and the periodic review of its implementation based on the assessment and review of the implementation of the Hyogo Framework for Action (HFA) and the experience gained through the regional and national strategies, institutions and plans for disaster risk reduction, as well as relevant regional and multilateral agreements.

The Hyogo Framework for Action: lessons learned and gaps identified

  1. Since the adoption of the HFA in 2005, and as documented in national and regional progress reports on HFA implementation as well as in other global reports, progress has been achieved in reducing disaster risk at local, national, regional and global levels by countries and other stakeholders. This has contributed to decreasing mortality risk in the case of hazards,[1] such as floods and tropical storms. There is growing evidence that reducing disaster risk is a cost effective investment in preventing future losses. Countries have enhanced their capacities. International mechanisms for cooperation, such as the Global Platform for Disaster Risk Reduction and the regional platforms for disaster risk reduction have been instrumental in the development of policies, strategies, the advancement of knowledge and mutual learning. Overall, the HFA has been an important instrument for raising public and institutional awareness, generating political commitment, and focusing and catalyzing actions by a wide range of stakeholders at local, national, regional and global levels.
  2. Over the same 10-year time frame, however, disasters have continued to exact a heavy toll. Over 700 thousand people lost their lives, over 1.4 million were injured, and around 23 million were made homeless as a result of disasters. Overall, more than 1.5 billion people were affected by disasters in various ways. The total economic loss was more than $1.3 trillion. In addition, between 2008 and 2012, 144 million were displaced by disasters. Disasters are increasing in frequency and intensity, and those exacerbated by climate change are significantly impeding progress toward sustainable development. Evidence indicates that exposure of people and assets in all countries has increased faster than vulnerability[2] has decreased, thus generating new risk and a steady rise in disasters losses with significant socio-economic impact in the short, medium and long term, especially at the local and community level. Recurring small scale, slow-onset and extensive disasters particularly affect communities, households and small and medium enterprises and constitute a high percentage of all losses. All governments — especially those in developing countries where the mortality and economic losses from disasters are disporportionately higher — and businesses are faced with increasing levels of possible hidden costs and challenges to meet financial and other obligations. The security of people, communities and countries may also be affected.
  3. We are at a crossroads. It is urgent and critical to anticipate, plan for and act on risk scenarios over at least the next 50 years to protect more effectively human beings and their assets, and ecosystems.
  4. There has to be a broader and a more people-centred preventive approach to disaster risk. Enhanced work to address exposure and vulnerability and ensure accountability for risk creation is required at all levels. More dedicated action needs to be focused on tackling underlying risk drivers and compounding factors, such as demographic change, the consequences of poverty and inequality, weak governance, inadequate and non-risk-informed policies, limited capacity especially at the local level, poorly managed urban and rural development, declining ecosystems, climate change and variability, and conflict situations. Such risk drivers condition the resilience of households, communities, businesses and the public sector. Moreover, it is necessary to continue increasing preparedness for response and reconstruction and use post-disaster reconstruction and recovery to reduce future disaster risk.
  5. Disaster risk reduction practices need to be multi-hazard based, inclusive and accessible to be efficient and effective. It is necessary to ensure the engagement of all stakeholders and the participation of women, children and youth, persons with disabilities, indigenous peoples, volunteers, the community of practitioners, and older persons in the design and implementation of policies, plans and standards. There is a need for the public and private sectors to work more closely together and create opportunities for collaboration, and for business to integrate disaster risk into their management practices, investments and accounting.
  6. Global, regional and transboundary cooperation remains pivotal in supporting States, local authorities, communities and businesses to reduce disaster risk. Existing mechanisms require further strengthening. Developing countries, in particular small island developing States, landlocked developing countries, least developed countries and Africa need special attention and support through bilateral and multilateral channels for capacity building, financial and technical assistance, and technology transfer.
  7. Overall, the HFA has provided critical guidance to reduce disaster risk. Its implementation has, however, highlighted gaps in addressing the underlying risk factors and in the formulation of goals and priorities[3] for actions and the need to update and reorder them. It also highlighted the need to give the necessary visibility to all levels of implementation, and place emphasis on stakeholders and their role.
  8. The concurrent post-2015 processes on sustainable development, climate change and disaster risk provide the international community with a unique opportunity to ensure coherence and alignment across policies, practices and partnerships for implementation.
  9. Against this background, and in order to reduce disaster risk by addressing existing challenges and preparing for future ones, there is a need to: focus action on understanding risk and how it is created; strengthen governance mechanisms at all levels; invest in economic, social, cultural and environmental resilience; and enhance preparedness, response, recovery and reconstruction at all levels.

B. Expected outcome and goal

11. Whereas some progress in reducing losses has been achieved, a substantial reduction requires perseverance and persistence with a more explicit focus on persons and measuring progress. Building on the HFA, the present framework aims to achieve the following outcome over the next 20 years:

The substantial reduction of disaster losses, in lives, and in the social, economic and environmental assets of persons, communities and countries.

The realization of this outcome requires the stated commitment and involvement of the political leadership at every level in every country. Responsibilities should be shared by central governments and subnational governing components and all stakeholders, as appropriate to their national circumstances and systems of governance.

12. To attain the expected outcome, the following goal is pursued:

The prevention of disaster risk creation and the reduction of the existing disaster risk through economic, social, cultural, and environmental measures which address exposure and vulnerability, and thus strengthen resilience.

13. To support the assessment of global progress in achieving the expected outcome, five global targets are identified: reduce disaster mortality by [a given percentage in function of number of hazardous events] by 20[xx]; reduce the number of affected people by [a given percentage in function of number of hazardous events] by 20[xx]; reduce disaster economic loss by [a given percentage in function of number of hazardous events] by 20[xx]; reduce disaster damage to health and educational facilities by [a given percentage in function of number of hazardous events] by 20[xx]; and increase number of countries with national and local strategies by [a given percentage] by 20[xx].

14. The present framework applies to the risk of small scale and large scale, frequent and infrequent, and slow onset disasters caused by natural hazards and related environmental and technological hazards and risks and aims to guide the multi-hazard management of disaster risk in development at local, national, regional and global levels.

C. Guiding principles

15. Drawing from the principles contained in the Yokohama Strategy[4] and the HFA, the implementation of the present framework will be guided by the following principles:

a) Each State has the primary responsibility to holistically reduce disaster risk, including through cooperation.

b) Managing the risk of disasters should be aimed at protecting persons, their property, livelihoods and productive assets, while respecting their human rights.

c) Disaster risk reduction depends on governance mechanisms across sectors and at local, national, regional and global levels and their coordination. It requires the full engagement of all State institutions of an executive and legislative nature at national and local levels, and a clear articulation of responsibilities across public and private stakeholders, including business, to ensure mutual outreach, partnership and accountability.

d) The leadership and empowerment of local authorities and communities are required to reduce disaster risk, and decision-making powers, resources and incentives require to be allocated accordingly. The enabling and coordinating role of central government is essential.

e) Disaster risk reduction requires an all-of-society engagement and empowerment, equality, and inclusive, accessible and non-discriminatory participation, paying special attention to at-risk groups in line with internationally agreed human rights. A gender, age, disability, and cultural perspective should be integrated into disaster risk management.

f) Addressing underlying risk factors through risk-informed public and private investments is more cost-effective than primary reliance on post-disaster response and recovery, and contributes to the sustainability of development.

g) While the drivers of risk may be local, national, transboundary or global in scope, disaster risks have local and specific characteristics which must be understood, given the differential capacities of countries and communities, for the determination of measures to reduce disaster risk.

h) Disaster risk reduction requires transparent risk-informed decision-making based on open and gender-specific/sex/age/disability-disaggregated data, and freely available, accessible, up-to-date, easy-to-understand, science-based, non-sensitive risk information complemented by local, traditional and indigenous knowledge, as relevant.

i) The development, revision and implementation of relevant national and international policies, plans, practices and mechanisms needs to aim at coherence and mutual reinforcement across sustainable development and growth, climate change and variability, environmental management and disaster risk reduction agendas. Disaster risk reduction mainstreaming is critical to the sustainability of development.

j) The post-disaster recovery and reconstruction phase is critical to reduce disaster risk and for public education and awareness on disaster risk.

k) Global, regional and transboundary cooperation is essential and requires further strengthening in accordance with international obligations.

l) Developing countries, in particular least developed countries, small island developing States, and landlocked developing countries, and Africa require specific support tailored to their needs and priorities.

D. Priorities for action

General considerations

16. Each State has the primary responsibility for its own sustainable development and for taking effective measures to reduce disaster risk, including for the protection of people on its territory, infrastructure and other national assets from the impact of disasters. At the same time, in the context of increasing global interdependence, concerted international cooperation and an enabling international environment are required to stimulate and contribute to developing the knowledge, capacities and motivation needed for disaster risk reduction at all levels.

17. All actors are encouraged to build multi-stakeholder partnerships, at all levels, as appropriate, and on a voluntary basis, to contribute to the implementation of this framework. States and other actors are also encouraged to promote the strengthening or establishment of national, regional and international volunteer corps, which can be made available to countries and to the international community to contribute to addressing vulnerability and reducing disaster risk.

18. The promotion of a culture of prevention, including through the mobilization of adequate resources for disaster risk reduction, is an investment for the future with substantial returns.

Priorities for action

19. Taking into account the experience gained through the implementation of the HFA, and in pursuit of the expected outcome and goal, there is a need for focused action across sectors by States at local, national, regional and global levels in the following priority areas:

1) Understanding disaster risk;

2) Strengthening governance and institutions to manage disaster risk;

3) Investing in economic, social, cultural and environmental resilience;

4) Enhancing preparedness for effective response, and building back better in recovery and reconstruction.

20. In their approach to disaster risk reduction, all stakeholders should take into consideration the key activities listed under each of these four priorities and should implement them, as appropriate, to their own circumstances and capacities.

Priority 1: Understanding disaster risk

21. Policies and practices for disaster risk management should be based on an understanding of risk in all its dimensions of vulnerability, capacity and exposure of persons and assets and hazards characteristics. This requires an all-states and all-stakeholders effort on a number of areas for action, such as collection, analysis and dissemination of information and data, advancement of research, and the development and sharing of open-source risk models, as well as continuous monitoring and exchange of practices and learning.

National and local levels

22. It is important to:

a) Establish baselines and periodically assess disaster risks, including vulnerability, exposure and hazard characteristics, at the relevant spatial scale, such as within a river basin and along coastlines;

b) Systematically survey, record and publicly account for all disaster losses and the economic, social and health impacts;

c) Make non-sensitive risk, disasters and loss information free, openly available, and accessible, and ensure its dissemination, at all levels, taking into account the needs of different categories of users. It is important to ensure real-time access to reliable data, and use ICT innovations to enhance collection, analysis and dissemination of data;

d) Build the capacity of local government officials, public servants, communities and volunteers through sharing of experience, training and learning programmes on disaster risk reduction, targeting specific sectors to ensure consistent collection, analysis and use of risk assessment, and implementation of disaster-risk related policies and plans;

e) Promote and improve dialogue and cooperation among scientific communities, including social, health, economic and environmental sciences, practitioners, businesses, people at risk and policymakers;

f) Ensure the use of traditional and local knowledge to complement, as relevant and appropriate, scientific knowledge in disaster risk assessment and the development and implementation of policies, plans and programs;

g) Strengthen technical and scientific capacity to develop and apply methodologies, standards, metrics and models to assess vulnerabilities and exposure to all hazards, taking into account landscape and watershed level considerations and ecosystem functions and services to reduce disaster risk in risk assessment protocols;

h) Invest in research, innovation and technology and promote a long-term multi-hazard approach and solution-driven research for disaster risk management to better address gaps, societal challenges and emerging risks and interdependencies;

i) Promote the incorporation of disaster risk education, including preparedness, in educational curricula at all levels and in informal education systems, as well as in professional education;

j) Promote national strategies to strengthen public education and awareness of risk information and knowledge through campaigns, social media, community mobilization and other available means, taking into account specific audiences and their needs.

Global and regional levels

23. It is important to:

a) Share and cooperate on the development of science-based and common methodologies and standards for risk modelling and assessment, monitoring, early warning, disaster recording and statistics, and disaggregated data collection;

b) Continue promoting the use, application and affordability of, and access to, information, communication and space-based technologies and related services, as well as maintaining and strengthening in-situ and remotely-sensed earth observations, to support disaster risk reduction at all levels, and strengthen the utilization of social media and mobile phone networks to support successful risk communication;

c) Promote common efforts in partnership with scientific community and the private sector to establish good international practices;

d) Support the development of local, national, regional and global user-friendly systems and services for the exchange of information on good practices, cost-effective and easy-to-use disaster risk reduction technologies, and lessons learned on policies, plans and measures for disaster risk reduction;

e) Continue global campaigns as instruments for public awareness and education (e.g. “The One Million Safe Schools and Hospitals”, “Making Cities Resilient: my city is getting ready!”, the “United Nations Sasakawa Award for Disaster Reduction”, and the yearly United Nations International Day for Disaster Reduction) that promote a culture of prevention, generate understanding of disaster risk, support mutual learning and share experiences, and encourage all public and private stakeholders to actively engage and join such initiatives, and develop new ones at local, national, regional and global levels, with similar purposes;

f) Enhance the scientific and technical work on disaster risk reduction through the mobilization of existing networks of scientific and research institutions at national, regional and international levels in order to strengthen the evidence base in support of the implementation and monitoring of this framework, promote scientific research into risk patterns and trends and the causes and effects of short and long-term disaster risk in society, utilize available good practices and lessons learned, provide guidance on methodologies and standards for risk assessments, risk modelling and the use of data, identify research and technology gaps and set recommendations for research priority areas in disaster risk management, promote and support the availability and application of science to decision-making, contribute and cooperate on the update of the 2009 Terminology on Disaster Risk Reduction, and use post-disaster reviews as opportunities to learn and enhance public policy.

Priority 2: Strengthening governance and institutions to manage disaster risk

24. Governance conditions the effective and efficient management of disaster risk at all levels. Clear vision, plan, guidance and coordination across sectors and participation of all stakeholders, as appropriate, are required. Strengthening the governance of disaster risk management is therefore necessary.

National and local levels

25. It is important to:

a) Promote the coherence of, and further develop as appropriate, national and local frameworks of law, regulation and public policy, including for development, poverty reduction, climate change adaptation and environmental management, which through defining roles and responsibilities guide the public sector in: (i) addressing disaster risk in publically owned, managed or regulated services and infrastructure, and (ii) regulate and provide incentives for actions by persons, households, communities and businesses;

b) Adopt and implement national and local plans, across different timescales aimed at addressing short, medium and long term disaster risk, with targets, indicators and timeframes;

c) Strengthen mechanisms to monitor, periodically assess, ensure compliance, and publicly report on progress on national and local plans by all public and private stakeholders;

d) Enhance, as appropriate, relevant normative frameworks and mechanisms to strengthen disclosure of and, accountability for, disaster risk;

e) Promote public scrutiny and institutional debates, including by parliamentarians and other elected officials, on progress reports of local and national plans;

f) Establish or further strengthen all-stakeholder coordination mechanisms at national and local levels, such as national and local platforms for disaster risk reduction It is necessary for such mechanisms to have a strong foundation in national institutional frameworks with clearly assigned responsibilities and authority to, inter alia, identify sectoral and multisectoral risk, build awareness and knowledge of risk through sharing and dissemination of risk information and data, contribute to and coordinate reports on local and national disaster risk, coordinate public awareness campaigns on disaster risk, facilitate and support local multisectoral cooperation (e.g. among local governments), contribute to the determination of and reporting on national and local disaster risk management plans. These responsibilities and authority should be established through laws, regulations, standards, and procedures, as appropriate;

g) Empower, through regulatory and financial means, local action and leadership in disaster risk management by local authorities, communities and indigenous people;

h) Stimulate, in accordance with national practices, the development of quality standards and mechanisms, including certifications, for disaster risk management, with the participation of the private sector and professional associations and scientific organizations.

Global and regional levels

26. It is important to:

a) Continue to guide action at the regional level through agreed regional and subregional strategies for disaster risk reduction, adjusted, as appropriate, in light of the framework;

b) Foster collaboration and partnership across mechanisms and institutions for the implementation of instruments relevant to disaster risk, such as for climate change, sustainable development, environment, health and others, as appropriate;

c) Continue to actively engage in the Global Platform for Disaster Risk Reduction, the regional and subregional platforms for disaster risk reduction and thematic platforms, which represent effective multi-stakeholder mechanisms to forge partnerships, periodically assess progress on implementation and share practice and knowledge on risk-informed policies, programmes and investments, including on development and climate issues;

d) Continue to strengthen capacities and mechanisms, such as hazard-focused disaster risk reduction forums, to reduce transboundary disaster risk, including displacement risk;

e) Promote and use voluntary and self-initiated peer reviews among countries and local governments as they may represent a useful mechanism to support local and national efforts, reviews of progress, mutual learning, exchange of good practices and identification of specific areas for future technical cooperation, exchange of information, technology transfer and financial support, as appropriate;

f) Strengthen cooperation and call for contribution to the development of international monitoring mechanisms, such as the HFA Monitor, that are intended to support and complement national and local monitoring systems, and provide a practical understanding of overall regional and global efforts to manage disaster risk. Such information is of relevance in the consideration of progress on the sustainable development agenda and goals, and on climate change.

Priority 3: Investing in economic, social, cultural, and environmental resilience

27. Investing in risk prevention and reduction through structural and non-structural measures is essential to enhance the economic, social, cultural resilience of persons, communities, countries and their assets as well as the environment. Such measures are cost-effective and instrumental to save lives and prevent and reduce losses. A continued integrated focus on key development areas, such as health, education, agriculture, water, ecosystem management, housing, cultural heritage, public awareness, financial and risk transfer mechanisms, is required.

National and local levels

28. It is important to:

a) Allocate resources at all levels of administration for the development and the implementation of disaster risk reduction policies, plans, laws and regulations in all relevant sectors;

b) Strengthen public investments in critical facilities and physical infrastructures, particularly disaster prevention and reduction structural measures, schools, clinics, hospitals, water and power plants , communications and transport lifelines, disaster warning and management centres through proper design, including the Principles of Universal Design, building better from the start, retrofitting and re-building, taking into account economic, social, and environmental impact assessments.

c) Protect or support the protection of museums and other sites of historical, cultural and religious interest, as well as of work places;

d) Give land-use policy development and implementation, including urban planning, informal and non-permanent housing, special attention due to their direct impact on risk exposure;

e) Promote the incorporation of disaster risk assessment into rural development planning and management, in particular with regard to mountain and coastal flood plain areas, including through the identification of land zones that are available and safe for human settlement;

f) Encourage the revision of existing or the development of new building codes, standards, rehabilitation and reconstruction practices at the national or local levels, as appropriate, with the aim of making them more applicable in the local context, particularly in informal human settlements, and reinforce the capacity to implement, monitor and enforce such codes, including through a consensus-based approach;

g) Enhance the resilience of health systems by integrating disaster risk reduction into primary health care, especially at local level developing the capacity of health workers in understanding risk, applying and implementing disaster risk reduction approaches in health work, and supporting and training community health groups in disaster risk reduction approaches;

h) Strengthen the implementation of social safety-net mechanisms to assist the poor and at-risk groups, such as older persons, persons with disabilities, displaced persons, migrants and other populations exposed to disaster risk and affected by disasters;

i) Strengthen policy, technical and institutional capacities in local and national disaster risk management, including those related to technology, training, and human and material resources;

j) Review existing financial and fiscal instruments in order to support risk-sensitive public and private investments, and promote the integration of disaster risk reduction considerations and measures in economic valuations, investment tracking, cost-benefit analyses, competitiveness strategies, investment decisions, debt ratings, risk analysis and growth forecasts, budgeting and accounting, and the determination of incentives;

k) Strengthen the sustainable use and management of ecosystems and implement integrated environmental and natural resource management approaches that incorporate disaster risk reduction.

Global and regional levels

29. It is important to:

a) Recognize the different multilateral processes, work through the United Nations and other relevant institutions and processes, as appropriate, to promote coherence at all levels and across sustainable development, climate change and disaster risk reduction policies, plans and programs;

b) Promote the development and strengthening, as relevant, of financial, risk transfer and risk sharing mechanisms in close cooperation with business and international financial institutions;

c) Enhance the engagement with institutions involved with financial regulation in an effort to better understand the impacts of disasters on the financial stability of countries, companies and individuals, and thereby promote key policy developments around financial stability and inclusion.

Priority 4: Enhancing preparedness for effective response, and building back better in recovery and reconstruction

30. The steady growth of disaster risk, including the increase of people and assets exposure, combined with the learning from past disasters, indicate the need to further strengthen preparedness for response at all levels. Disasters have demonstrated that the recovery and reconstruction phase needs to be planned ahead of the disaster and is critical to building back better and making nations and communities more resilient to disasters.

National and local levels

31. It is important to:

a) Prepare or review and periodically update disaster preparedness and contingency plans and policies at all levels, with a particular focus on preventing and responding to possible displacement, and ensuring the participation of all sectors and stakeholder groups, including the most vulnerable, in the design and planning;

b) Continue to further strengthen early warning systems and tailor them to the needs of users, including social and cultural requirements;

c) Promote regular disaster preparedness exercises, including evacuation drills, with a view to ensuring rapid and effective disaster response and access to essential food and non-food relief supplies, as appropriate, to local needs;

d) Make new and existing hospitals and health facilities safe and operational during disasters;

e) Adopt public policies and establish coordination and funding mechanisms and procedures to plan and prepare for post-disaster recovery and reconstruction;

f) Ensure the engagement of diverse institutions, multiple authorities and stakeholders at all levels, in view of the complex and costly nature of post-disaster reconstruction;

g) Learn from the recovery and reconstruction programs over the HFA decade and exchange experience knowledge and lessons learned in order to develop guidance for preparedness for reconstruction, including on land use planning and structural standards improvement;

h) Promote the incorporation of disaster risk management into post-disaster recovery and rehabilitation processes and use opportunities during the recovery phase to develop capacities that reduce disaster risk in the medium term, including through the sharing of expertise, knowledge and lessons learned.

Global and regional levels

32. It is important to:

a) Strengthen and, when necessary, develop coordinated regional approaches, regional policies, operational mechanisms, making use of best technology and innovation, which may include the use of business facilities and services and military assets upon request, as well as plans and communication systems to prepare for and ensure rapid and effective disaster response in situations that exceed national coping capacities;

b) Promote the further development of standards, codes and other guidance instruments to support preparedness and response, and contribute to the lessons learned for policy practice and reconstruction programmes;

c) Promote the further development of effective regional early warning mechanisms to ensure that information is acted on across all relevant countries;

d) Enhance international mechanisms, such as the International Recovery Platform, for the sharing of experience and learning among countries and all stakeholders;

e) Develop practical guidance and compile good practices to support planning, investments and policy development and decisions.

E. Role of stakeholders

33. While States have the overall responsibility to reduce disaster risk, stakeholders play a critical role as enablers in providing support to States in accordance with national policies, in the implementation of the framework at local, national, regional and global levels. Their commitment, goodwill, knowledge, experience and resources will be required.

34. While States, building on existing relevant international instruments, may determine more specific roles and responsibilities for all public and private stakeholders in accordance with national plans and priorities, the following actions should be encouraged:

a) Business, professional associations, private sector financial institutions, including financial regulators and accounting bodies, and philanthropic foundations to integrate disaster risk management, including business continuity, in business models and practices, especially in micro, small and medium enterprises, engage in awareness-raising and training for their employees and customers, engage in and support research and innovation as well as the full use of technology in disaster risk management, share and disseminate knowledge, practices and data, actively engage with the public sector for the development of normative frameworks, quality standards, regulations, as well as policies and plans to incorporate disaster risk reduction;

b) Academia and research entities to focus on the evolving nature of risk and scenarios in the medium and long terms, increase research for local application and support action by local communities and authorities, and support the interface between policy and science for effective decision-making;

c) Social groups, volunteers, civil society and faith-based organizations to engage with public institutions and business to, inter alia, provide specific knowledge and pragmatic guidance in the context of the development and implementation of normative frameworks, standards and plans for disaster risk reduction; engage in the implementation of local, national, regional and global plans and strategies, and their monitoring; contribute to and support public awareness and education on disaster risk ; advocate for an inclusive and all-of-society disaster risk management which strengthen the synergies across groups. On this point, it should be noted that:

i) Children and youth are agents of change and can contribute their experience and should be given the space and modalities to do this;

ii) Women are critical to effectively managing disaster risk, and designing, resourcing and implementing gender-responsive disaster risk reduction policies, plans and programs;

iii) Persons with disabilities are critical in the assessment of risk and design and implementation of plans tailored to specific requirements in line with the Principles of Universal Design;

iv) Older persons have years of knowledge, skills and wisdom which are invaluable assets to reduce disaster risk and should be included in the design of policies, plans, and mechanisms, including for early warning;

v) Indigenous peoples through their experience and traditional knowledge provide an important contribution to the development and implementation of plans and mechanisms, including for early warning.

d) Media to take an active role at local, national, regional and global levels in contributing to raise public awareness and understanding, and to disseminating risk, hazard and disaster information, including on small-scale disasters, in a simple, easy-to-understand and accessible manner, in close cooperation with science and academia; adopt specific disaster risk reduction communication policies; support, as appropriate, early warning systems; and stimulate a culture of prevention and strong community involvement in sustained public education campaigns and public consultations at all levels of society.

35. With reference to the General Assembly resolution 68/211 of 20 December 2013, the commitments are instrumental to identify modalities of cooperation and implement the framework. Commitments need to be specific, predictable and time-bound in order to support the development of partnerships at local, national, regional and global levels, and the implementation of local and national disaster risk management plans. All stakeholders are encouraged to publicize their commitments in support of the implementation of the framework, or of the national and local disaster risk management plans, through the UNISDR website.

F. International cooperation and global partnership

General considerations

36. Given their differential capacities, developing countries require enhanced global partnership for development, adequate provision and mobilization of all means of implementation and continued international support to reduce disaster risk.

37. Disaster-prone developing countries, in particular least developed countries, small island developing States, and landlocked developing countries, and Africa, warrant particular attention in view of their higher vulnerability and risk levels, which often greatly exceed their capacity to respond to and recover from disasters. Such vulnerability urgently requires the strengthening of international cooperation and ensuring genuine and durable partnerships at the regional and international levels in order to support developing countries to implement this framework in accordance with their national priorities and needs.

38. Enhanced international cooperation, including North-South complemented by South-South and triangular cooperation has proved to be key to reduce disaster risk and there is a need to strengthen them further. Partnerships will play an important role by harnessing the full potential of engagement between governments at all levels, businesses, civil society and a wide range of other stakeholders, and are effective instruments for mobilizing human and financial resources, expertise, technology and knowledge and can be powerful drivers for change, innovation and welfare.

39. Financing from all sources, domestic and international, public and private, the development and transfer of reliable, affordable, modern technology on mutually agreed terms, capacity-building assistance and enabling institutional and policy environments at all levels are critically important means of reducing disaster risk.

Implementation and follow-up

40. Support to countries in the implementation of this framework may require action on the following recommendations:

a) Developing countries, in particular least developed countries, small island developing States and landlocked developing countries, and Africa require predictable, adequate, sustainable and coordinated international assistance, through bilateral and multilateral channels, for the development and strengthening of their capacities, including through financial and technical assistance, and technology transfer on mutually agreed terms.

b) Enhance access to, and transfer of, environmentally sound technology, science and innovation as well as knowledge and information sharing through existing mechanisms, namely bilateral, regional and multilateral collaborative arrangements, including the United Nations and other relevant bodies

c) Mainstream disaster risk reduction measures appropriately into multilateral and bilateral development assistance programmes, including those related to poverty reduction, natural resource management, urban development and adaptation to climate change.

d) States and regional and international organizations, including the United Nations and international financial institutions, are called upon to integrate disaster risk reduction considerations into their sustainable development policy, planning and programming at all levels.

e) States and regional and international organizations should foster greater strategic coordination among the United Nations, other international organizations, including international financial institutions, regional bodies, donor agencies and nongovernmental organizations engaged in disaster risk reduction. In the coming years, consideration should be given to ensuring the implementation and strengthening of relevant international legal instruments related to disaster risk reduction.

f) United Nations system entities, including funds, programs, and specialized agencies, through the United Nations Plan of Action on Disaster Risk Reduction for Resilience, other relevant International Organizations and treaty bodies, including the Conference of the Parties of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, international financial institutions at the global and regional levels, and the Red Cross and the Red Crescent Movement, are called upon to ensure optimum use of resources and support to developing countries, at their request, and other stakeholders in the implementation of this framework in synergy with other relevant frameworks, including through the development and the strengthening of capacities, and clear and focused programs that support States’ priorities in a balanced and sustainable manner.

g) The UNISDR, in particular, is requested to support the implementation, monitoring and review of this framework including through: preparing periodic progress reports on implementation; supporting the development of coherent global and regional monitoring mechanisms in synergy, as appropriate, with other relevant mechanisms for sustainable development and climate change, and updating the existing web-based HFA Monitor accordingly; generating evidence-based and practical guidance for implementation in close collaboration with, and through mobilization of, experts; reinforcing a culture of prevention in all stakeholders, through support to standards development by experts and technical organizations, advocacy initiatives, and dissemination of risk information, policies and practices; supporting countries, including through the national platforms or their equivalent, in developing national plans and monitoring trends and patterns in disaster risk, loss and impacts; convening the Global Platform for Disaster Risk Reduction and supporting the organization of regional platforms for disaster risk reduction; leading the revision of the United Nations Plan of Action on Disaster Risk Reduction for Resilience; facilitating the enhancement of, and continuing to service, the ISDR Scientific and Technical Advisory Group in mobilizing science and technical work on disaster risk reduction; leading and coordinating the update of 2009 Terminology on Disaster Risk Reduction; and maintaining the stakeholders’ commitment registry

h) Adequate voluntary financial contributions should be provided to the United Nations Trust Fund for Disaster Reduction, in the effort to ensure adequate support for the follow-up activities to this framework. The current usage and feasibility for the expansion of this Fund, should be reviewed, inter alia, to assist disaster-prone developing countries to set up national strategies for disaster risk reduction.

i) The Inter-Parliamentary Union and other relevant regional bodies and mechanisms for parliamentarians are encouraged to continue supporting, and advocating for, disaster risk reduction and the strengthening of legal frameworks.

j) The United Cities and Local Governments and other relevant bodies of local governments are encouraged to continue supporting cooperation and mutual learning among local governments for disaster risk reduction and the implementation of this framework.

k) The implementation of this framework will be periodically reviewed by the United Nations General Assembly and the Economic and Social Commission through and in alignment with existing processes and mechanisms, such as the High Level Political Forum for Sustainable Development, to allow for stocktaking, identifying new emerging risk, formulating recommendations for further action, and introducing possible corrective measures.

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[1] Hazard is defined as: “A potentially damaging physical event, phenomenon or human activity that may cause the loss of life or injury, property damage, social and economic disruption or environmental degradation. Hazards can include latent conditions that may represent future threats and can have different origins: natural (geological, hydrometeorological and biological) or induced by human processes (environmental degradation and technological hazards)” UN/ISDR. Geneva 2004.

[2] Vulnerability is defined as: “The conditions determined by physical, social, economic, and environmental factors or processes, which increase the susceptibility of a community to the impact of hazards”. UN/ISDR. Geneva 2004.

[3] The Hyogo Framework Priorities (2005-2015) are: 1) Ensure that disaster risk reduction is a national and a local priority with a strong institutional basis for implementation; 2) identify, assess and monitor disaster risks and enhance early warning; 3) use knowledge, innovation and education to build a culture of safety and resilience at all levels; 4) reduce the underlying risk factors; and 5) strengthen disaster preparedness for effective response at all levels.

[4] The Yokohama Strategy for a Safer World: Guidelines for Natural Disaster Prevention, Preparedness and Mitigation and its Plan of action, adopted in 1994.